" Now, in 1959, astronomy was popular, but cosmology ― the deep physics of understanding the universe ― was just developing.
The response to that survey was recently republished in Scientific American ― the most widely read science journal in the world.
This ancient commentary was finalized long before Hubble was a gleam in his great-grandparent's eye.
So there's no possibility of Hubble or any other modern scientific data influencing these concepts.
That means the text of the Bible itself (3300 years ago), the translation of the Torah into Aramaic by Onkelos (100 CE), the Talmud (redacted about the year 500 CE), and the three major Torah commentators.
There are many, many commentators, but at the top of the mountain there are three, accepted by all: Rashi (11th century France), who brings the straight understanding of the text, Maimonides (12th century Egypt), who handles the philosophical concepts, and then Nachmanides (13th century Spain), the earliest of the Kabbalists.
When we add up the generations of the Bible, we come to 5700-plus years. God could have put the fossils in the ground and juggled the light arriving from distant galaxies to make the world appear to be billions of years old. God being infinite could have made the world that way. In trying to resolve this apparent conflict, it's interesting to look historically at trends in knowledge, because absolute proofs are not forthcoming.